May Your Wines
Fall Bright

This is our free "E-Book" to help our amateur winemakers!

TABLE OF 
CONTENTS

Title Page
Home on Keuka Lake
Catalog
Index-Sitemap
Welcome Location
About the Authors

Basic Winemaking
Getting Started

AddingSugarChart

Adding
Sugar Math
Airlocks
Juice to Wine
Grapes to Wine
BATF

Bottle Fillers -Wands

Bottling

Bungs

Cleaning

Containers

Corks

Corkers

Fining and Clearing

Hydrometer Test

Hydrometer +5 to 5

Malolactic Culture

pH

Siphon

Spigot

Yeast: 
Lalvin

Red Star

Starter

Recommendations

Steve Shanker's Winemaking Site

ACID REDUCTION 
and ADDITION

Acid Testing TA
Acidex

Calcium Carbonate

Cold Stabilizing

Potassium Bicarbonate
Potassium Sorbate
Sodium Hydroxide
Tartaric Acid 

Water and Blending

CONVERSIONS
Metric Equil
.

FILTRATION
Buon Vino Mini Jet

Instructions-Mini

Cleaning-Mini
Bypass pumping

Buon Vino SuperJet

Instructions-Super

Mark III

Vinamat-type 

OAK
Barrel Treatment

Oak Chips
and Oak Mor

PROBLEMS
Fining
Hydrogen Sulfide:
Copper Sulfate
Bocksin
Reduless

Stuck Fermentation    
Vinegar

SPECIALTY WINES
Blending

Bottling Sweet
 
Fruit Wines
Late Harvest Vignoles
and Riesling

Sherry
Sparkling Wine

TEST
Acid Testing

Clinitest

Clinitest-Poison

NaOH Chart
Testing  NaOH

Residual Sugar

S02 Sulfite Test
Titrets

Vinometer Alcohol

Vines, Nurseries, 
Vineyard Supplies
 
Partial list for sure!

BREWING
Basic Brewing

Beginner Mashing

HOP TOXICITY
Hop Toxicity Medical

Index-Sitemap

Online shopping at  

www.fallbright.com 

May Your Wines 
Fall Bright!

 

             How to read a hydrometer 
   
on this page:
1.  Reading a hydrometer.
2.  Chart for brix, specific gravity and potential alcohol. 
3.  Chart for temperature adjustment at 68 degree F.
4.  Instructions for use of Fermtech hydrometer jar/wine thief.
5. 
AddingSugarChart  Adding Sugar Math


                             Fall Bright, The Winemakers Shoppe

            BEFORE you begin fermentation, please take a hydrometer reading.  A stable wine has 9 14 percent alcohol.  In order to achieve this level of alcohol, the juice or fruit to be fermented must have an adequate sugar level.  General conversion of sugar to alcohol is approximately 58% (0.575%~).  A brix of 21 degrees yields around 12% alcohol. 
          
View the hydrometer floating in the juice sample at eye level.  Take the reading from the bottom of the meniscus (see illustration below).  The balling/ brix scale is the brix or sugar percentage.  In addition to the brix scale, a triple scale hydrometer offers a scale for specific gravity and one for potential alcohol.

                 

   

TEMPERATURE ADJUSTMENTS:  Most hydrometers are calibrated for a sample of a certain temperature and will give adjustment factors in with their instructions. 

Brix test is a measurement of dissolved solids in a juice/wine being tested.  Should there be any alcohol in the wine sample, the test would be properly called a Balling.  The actual testing procedure is, however, identical.  

1.  Adjust the temperature required as indicated on the hydrometer stem.  If the sample contains any carbon dioxide gas, the gas should be removed by careful agitation.  

2.  Pour sample into clean and dry hydrometer jar up to about 2 inches from the top.  If your jar is not dry, rinse it with some of the juice.

3.  Insert clean and dry hydrometer, holding the top of the hydrometer stem in a pendulum effect.  

4.  Spin the hydrometer in the sample.

5.  Read the instrument at the bottom of the meniscus (see illustration above).

6.  Retake temperature immediately and make necessary adjustments. 

Chart:  figures from Commercial Winemaking by Vine

Brix at:
20 degrees C
68 degrees F
  Specific Gravity   Potential 
Alcohol
   
-5    
-4    
-3    
-2    
-1    
0   1.0000   0.0000
1   1.0039   0.575
2   1.0078   1.150
3   1.0117   1.725
4   1.0156   2.300
5   1.0196   2.875
6   1.0236   3.450
7   1.0277   4.025
8   1.0318   4.600
9   1.0359   5.175
10   1.0400   5.750
11   1.0441   6.325
12   1.0483   6.900
13   1.0525   7.475
14   1.0538   8.050
15   1.0610   8.625
16   1.0653   9.200
17   1.0697   9.775
18   1.0740   10.350
19   1.0784   10.925
20   1.0829   11.500
21   1.0873   12.075
22   1.0918   12.650
23   1.0963   13.225
24   1.1009   13.800
25   1.1055   14.375
26   1.1101   14.950
27   1.1148   15.525
28   1.0095   16.100
29   1.1242   16.675
30   1.1290   17.250
31   1.1338   17.825
32   1.1386   18.400
33   1.1435   18.975
34   1.1484   19.550
35   1.1533   20.125
36   1.1583   20.700
37   1.1633   21.275
38   1.1683   21.850
39   1.1734   22.425
40   1.1785   23.000
41   1.1837   23.575
42   1.1888   24.154

 

 

 

 

 

Temperature Adjustment: for hydrometers calibrated for 20 degrees C or 68 degrees F:  from  Commercial Winemaking by Vine

Add or subtract factors in chart from observed readings for given temps.
Temperature adjustment factors are usually given on most hydrometer instruction inserts.  Hydrometers are calibrated for different temperatures.  Check your hydrometer, if it is not calibrated for 20 degrees C or 68 degrees F, do not use this chart.   

C0 F0 15 brix 20 brix 25 brix 30 brix 35 brix 40 brix
Correction factor to be subtracted from observed hydrometer reading:
15 59 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.33 0.34
16 60.8 0.22 0.23 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28
17 62.6 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.21
18 64.4 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14
19 66.2 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07
20 68 0 0 0 0 0 0
Correction factor to be added to observed hydrometer reading:
21 69.8 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
22 71.6 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.15
23 73.4 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.22
24 75.2 0.24 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30
25 77 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.38